One crucial aspect of laser scanning is the Level of Development (LOD) classification, which defines the level of detail and reliability of the BIM models produced. This article delves into the intricacies of LOD 100, 200, 400, and 500 and explores their respective differences and use cases within the BIM workflow.

Understanding LOD in BIM

Before delving into the specific LOD levels, it is essential to understand the concept of LOD in the context of BIM. LOD represents the degree of completeness and accuracy of a BIM model at different stages of a project’s lifecycle. It provides a standardized framework for communicating the level of detail and reliability of BIM models across various disciplines in the construction industry.

LOD levels typically range from 100 to 500, with each level offering a different degree of detail and precision. The higher the LOD level, the more information and accuracy the BIM model contains. It is crucial to select the appropriate LOD level for a specific project to ensure efficient collaboration, design coordination, and effective decision-making throughout the construction process.

LOD 100: Conceptual Design

At LOD 100, the BIM model represents the most basic level of development. It is primarily used during the conceptual design phase, where the focus is on providing a generalized representation of the building’s overall shape, size, and spatial relationships. LOD 100 models lack specific details and measurements but serve as a starting point for preliminary design discussions and visualization.

Use Cases:

  • Preliminary design and visualization
  • Stakeholder communication and collaboration
  • Initial space planning and layout exploration

LOD 200: Conceptual Development

Moving to LOD 200, the BIM model becomes more detailed and specific. At this level, the model starts to incorporate accurate and measurable elements such as walls, doors, windows, and other architectural components. LOD 200 models are typically used during the design development phase when refining the project’s scope, layout, and functional requirements.

Use Cases:

  • Design coordination and clash detection
  • Quantity take-offs and cost estimation
  • Initial construction sequencing and scheduling

LOD 400: Construction Documentation

As the project progresses into the construction phase, LOD 400 BIM models become crucial for generating accurate and comprehensive construction documentation. At this level, the model includes precise information about each building component, such as dimensions, specifications, and installation details. LOD 400 models support the generation of detailed shop drawings, fabrication files, and construction sequencing.

Use Cases:

  • Detailed construction documentation
  • Shop drawings and fabrication files generation
  • Material procurement and coordination

LOD 500: As-Built and Facility Management

LOD 500 represents the highest level of development and is typically used for capturing as-built information and facilitating facility management. At this stage, the BIM model contains precise details about every element in the building, including maintenance and operational data. LOD 500 models serve as a valuable resource for ongoing facility management, renovations, and future expansion projects.

Use Cases:

  • Asset management and maintenance planning
  • Renovation and retrofitting projects
  • Facility management and space utilization optimization

Benefits of Utilizing Laser Scanning and LOD in BIM

Integrating laser scanning technology with the appropriate LOD level in BIM offers numerous benefits throughout the construction lifecycle. Let’s explore some key advantages:

1. Enhanced Accuracy and Precision: Laser scanning captures precise measurements and detailed information about existing structures, ensuring accurate representation in BIM models. This level of accuracy minimizes errors, clashes, and rework during the design and construction phases.

2. Improved Collaboration and Communication: BIM models based on laser scanning data provide a visual and comprehensive representation of the building. This enhances communication among project stakeholders, enabling better decision-making, design coordination, and issue resolution.

3. Efficient Design Coordination: With LOD-specific BIM models, designers can identify clashes and conflicts early in the design phase, reducing costly on-site modifications and delays. LOD 400 and 500 models facilitate clash detection and enable seamless coordination among various trades.

4. Cost and Time Savings: Laser scanning combined with LOD levels streamlines construction workflows, reduces rework, and minimizes material waste. Accurate quantity take-offs, detailed documentation, and clash detection contribute to cost and time savings throughout the project.

5. Improved Facility Management: LOD 500 models provide a comprehensive digital representation of the building’s as-built condition. Facility managers can leverage this data for efficient maintenance planning, asset management, and future renovation or expansion projects.


In conclusion, laser scanning technology and the appropriate utilization of LOD levels in BIM bring significant advantages to the construction industry. Understanding the differences and use cases of LOD 100, 200, 400, and 500 enables professionals to select the right level of detail for their specific project requirements. By harnessing the power of laser scanning and LOD, construction teams can achieve improved accuracy, better collaboration, cost and time savings, and enhanced facility management.

Laser scanning has revolutionized the way we capture and utilize data in the construction industry. With its ability to create highly detailed and accurate BIM models, it has become an indispensable tool for architects, engineers, contractors, and facility managers. By leveraging the benefits of laser scanning and LOD, professionals can propel their projects forward with greater efficiency, precision, and success.