Introduction to Biofuels in the Maritime Industry
With the growing urgency to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the maritime industry is exploring alternative fuel sources, including biofuels and biofuel blends. This aligns with the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) strategic objective of environmental sustainability. As interest in biofuels grows, this article outlines the regulations, safety aspects, and operational considerations of adopting these alternative fuels.
Diverse Biofuels Available for Shipping
The maritime industry can potentially use three kinds of biofuels: Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME), Biomass to Liquid (BTL) fuels, and Hydrogen Vegetable Oil / Hydrogenation Derived Renewable Diesel (HVO/HDRD). Each of these biofuels has specific production techniques, features, and international norms. FAME currently stands as the most commonly used biofuel, either independently or mixed with conventional fossil fuels.
The Impact of Biofuels on Maritime Emissions Regulations
Biofuels’ usage doesn’t alter the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) or Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index (EEXI), as these metrics only consider standard reference fuels. However, biofuels can significantly influence the Carbon Intensity Index (CII) if approved by the respective flag administration. The European Union’s Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) system also has established guidelines for alternative fuels like biofuels.
Simplification in Biofuel Regulations
The Marine Environment Protection Committee has simplified the use of biofuels on ships, as evident in the approved Unified Interpretations to Regulation 18.3 of MARPOL Annex VI. This removes the need for on-board emission testing when using biofuels, making the transition to biofuels easier for maritime operators.
Challenges and Recommendations for Biofuel Use
Despite the potential benefits, adopting biofuels poses several operational challenges. These include microbial growth, oxygen degradation, low-temperature problems, and corrosion. Transitioning from diesel to biofuel may also lead to clogged fuel filters. In light of these challenges, DNV encourages maritime operators to consult with them early in the process. This proactive approach will allow operators to assess the impact of intended biofuel usage, ensure regulatory compliance, and maintain safe ship operations.